paula Scher (born October 6, 1948, Virginia) is an American graphic designer, illustrator, painter and art educator in design, and the first female principal at Pentagram, which she joined in 1991.

She is the 16th recipient of the School of Visual Art’s Masters Series Award and an exhibition of her work can be seen at the Visual Arts Museum & School of Visual Arts, which ties in with her book, Make it Bigger.


Paula Scher studied at the Tyler School of Art, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania and earned a Bachelor of Fine Arts in 1970. Later on in life she moved to New York City and took her first job as a layout artist for Random House children’s book division.


in 1994, Paula Scher was the first designer to create a new identity and promotional graphics system for The Public Theater, a program that become the turning point of identity in designs that influence much of the graphic design created for theatrical promotion and for cultural institutions in general.

Based on the challenge to raise public awareness and attendance at the Public Theater along with trying to appeal to a more diverse crowd, Scher created a graphic language that reflected street typography and graffiti-like juxtapostion. In 1995, Paula Scher and her Pentagram team created promotional campaigns for The Public Theater’s production of Savion Glover’s Bring in’Da Noise, Bring in ‘Da Funk that featured the wood typefaces used throughout The Public Theater’s identity. Scher was inspired by Rob Ray Kelly’s American Wood Types and the Victorian theater‘s poster when she created the cacophony of disparate wood typefaces, silhouetted photographs and bright flat colors for the theater’s posters and billboard. Scher limited her colors to two or three while highlighted the play’s title and theater logo that surrounded the tap artist in a typographical be-bop. The design was to appeal to a broad audience from the inner cities to the outer boroughs, especially those who hadn’t been attracted to theater.

From 1993 to 2005, Scher worked closely with George C. Wolfe, The Public’s producer and Oskar Eustis, who joined as artistic director during the fiftieth anniversary in 2005, on the development of posters, ads, and distinct identities. As part of the anniversary campaign, the identity was redrawn using the font Akzidenz Grotesk. The word “theater” was dropped and emphasis was placed on the word “public”. By 2008, the identity was even more definitive as it used a knockout font called Hoefler & Frere-Jones which provided affordable and accessible productions.


James Victore (born in 1962, in the city of Mountain Home, Idaho) is an American art director, designer, and author.


He attended the School of Visual Arts in New York, but never graduated. His work has been shown at major art institutions, including the Museum of Modern Art in New York. James Victore is an independent graphic designer whose clients include Moët & Chandon, Target, Amnesty International, the Shakespeare Project, The New York Times, MTV, the Lower East Side Tenement Museum and Portfolio Center. He has been awarded an Emmy for television animation, a Gold Medal from the Broadcast Designers Association, the Grand Prix from the Brno Biennele (Czech Republic) and Gold and Silver Medals from the New York Art Director’s Club. Victore’s posters are in the permanent collections of the Palais du Louvre, the Library of Congress and the Museum für Gestaltung among others. He now teaches graphic design at the School of Visual Arts in New York City and is a member of the AGI.


Victore is charming and humble, describing himself as still being “the unknown designer at age 50.” This is, of course, entirely untrue. (Aside from the fact that he’s not yet turned 50.) While you may not know the man, you very likely know the work. Once you see a Victore image – many of which live in the collection at MoMA – you rarely forget it. 

Victore attributes his compulsion to question authority to his childhood on a military base during the Vietnam War. After dropping out of art school, Victore began producing self-financed posters for nonprofit organizations devoted to Native Americans, AIDS awareness, and race issues.


Patrick – Typographer – KRIS HOLMES

Kris Holmes born 19. 7. 1950 in Reedly, California, USA is a calligrapher who has worked on many typeface designs.

Her only formal training in type design was a two week course with Hermann Zapf in 1979. Shortly thereafter she went to work for the Heil Co. in Germany as a type designer. In 1982 Charles Bigelow got a job teaching type design at Stanford University. Bigelow and Holmes began doing contract type design which resulted in the Lucida family of typefaces, originally designed for Scientific American magazine. Lucida Grande, the system font for Apple Computer’s OSX Operating System and the creation of the core fonts of the Java 2 language and developer kit for Sun Microsystems. These multi-lingual fonts cover five scripts, including Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew and Arabic, and twelve styles, comprising 10,000 characters in all. Approximately 150 million fonts designed by Bigelow & Holmes are in circulation and have been issued with several operating systems including Macintosh and Windows.

Kris has taught letter and type design courses at Portland State University, the Portland Museum Art School, Rhode Island School of Design, Santa Monica College, and the Otis College of Art. She has also taught type design tutorials for the Unicode consortium and the Raster Imaging and Digital Typography conferences.

Fonts: Holmes has designed over 75 fonts, including Leviathan (1979), Shannon™ (with Janice Prescott, 1982), Baskerville® (Revival, 1982), Caslon (Revival, 1982), ITC Isadora® (1983), Sierra™ (1983), Lucida® (with Charles Bigelow, 1985), Galileo (1987), Apple New York (1991), Apple Monaco (1991), Apple Chancery (1994) and Kolibri (1994).



Colour Theorist Johannes Itten – Ellie

Colour Theorist Johannes Itten

From 1919 to 1933 the Bauhaus School supported innovation in arts and architecture.  It was during this time that Johannes Itten (a teacher at the Bauhaus) developed the ‘Colour Wheel’.  Colour, through the development of the colour wheel, was enhanced through the ability to apply different palettes, group colours together and use different shades or hues.  The colour wheel introduced colour harmony and colour cultural association to the world and is now used widely within various innovative industries, including architecture, interior decoration, graphic design and artistry.



Further colour theories were developed by the Bauhaus, including, associating colour with individual emotions and aura (preferences and sensations).  These psychological theories developed by the Bauhaus are utilised today by artists and marketers in industries to prompt psychological colour responses towards hunger, relaxation, activity, fun, etc.


The Bauhaus influenced various art movements.  An example is ‘Abstract Expressionism’, where art revolved around colour theories through the use of clean, clear edges of solid colours.


Post 4: Colour Theorists, Sir Isaac Newton. Jake Dempsey

Our modern understanding of light and color begins with Isaac Newton (1642-1726) and a series of experiments that he publishes in 1672. He is the first to understand the rainbow — he refracts white light with a prism, resolving it into its component colors: red, orange, yellow, green, blue and violet.

In the late 1660s, Newton starts experimenting with his ’celebrated phenomenon of colors.’ At the time, people thought that color was a mixture of light and darkness, and that prismscolored light. Hooke was a proponent of this theory of color, and had a scale that went from brilliant red, which was pure white light with the least amount of darkness added, to dull blue, the last step before black, which was the complete extinction of light by darkness. Newton realizes this theory was false.

Light enters the prism from the top right, and is refracted by the glass. The violet is bent more than the yellow and red, so the colors separate.

Newton set up a prism near his window, and projected a beautiful spectrum 22 feet onto the far wall. Further, to prove that the prism was not coloring the light, he refracted the light back together.

Artists were fascinated by Newton’s clear demonstration that light alone was responsible for color. His most useful idea for artists was his conceptual arrangement of colors around the circumference of a circle (right), which allowed the painters’ primaries (red, yellow, blue) to be arranged opposite their complementary colors (e.g. red opposite green), as a way of denoting that each complementary would enhance the other’s effect through optical contrast.

Unable to represent spectral red with any pigment, Boutet substituted two reds – fire-red and crimson – omitting one of Newton’s two blues. To compound the confusion, the colorist evidently misread two of the labels, “orange” and “violet.”

This circular diagram became the model for many color systems of the 18th and 19th centuries. Claude Boutet’s painter’s circle of 1708 was probably the first to be based on Newton’s circle.

Luke Lucas

 is a 37-year-old freelance creative, art director, illustrator, designer and typographer from Melbourne.


He believes that the same word, passage or even letter can be treated in bunch of different ways and embody entirely different meanings… That and through subtleties like a slight shift in line weight, the elongation of a tail or the arc you use, a letter can go from contemporary to traditional or happy to sad in a single stroke…


1996-1999 Co-founder / Co-Creator Fourinarow Magazine

Together with Jamie Driver, half way through thier first year of art school they started publishing an inline skating magazine called Fourinarow. At the time the two men had very little knowledge about the publishing industry, thier design and business skills were super basic but the drive and passion for creating something that represented a culture that meant something to them was unstoppable.


Over the following 3 years, the pair published 8 editions of Fourinarow, which was distributed to 14 countries around the world. Soon after they teamed up with some other fellows, which lead onto Lifelounge. A magazine


1999-2011 Co Founder/Creative Director of Lifelounge

Lifelouge has taken on many forms over the last 12 years but the fundamental values that they were bound by the creaters was the genuine desire to create and represent the kinds of things that people can be entertained or inspired by. Among other things, through Lifelounge they created one of the longest serving online creative portals website, 14 editions of the contemporary culture print magazine Lifelounge (2005 – 2011) and a multi-award winning creative agency.

2011 – Present: Freelance Creative Professional



Post 3: Typographers, Timba Smits. Jake Dempsey


Timba Smits is an award winning Melbourne born / London based graphic designer, artist, illustrator, independent publisher, self confessed magazine addict and wannabe olympic ping-pong playa. He is also the worlds tallest ninja (in his dreams) and has a proper love of all things retro and kitsch.


ImageImageImageImageMost commonly though, Timba is known for founding one of the world’s art communities best kept secrets… Wooden Toy Quarterly: the only quarterly boogazine (half book half magazine) to come out once per year, and proud of it! Wooden Toy is not only a publication worth collecting for its design alone, but for its aim to document and highlight emerging and established creatives that have in some way been influenced by contemporary culture, design and art while drawing in the creatives that Timba thinks can be, and are, an influence or inspiration to others. 

David Carson

Known as the “Father of Grunge”. David Carson is an American graphic designer, art director and surfer. He is best known for his innovative magazine design, and use of experimental typography.He became famous by breaking all the rules of Graphic Design and developing his own signature style. David Carson is considered by many to be one of the world’s most influential graphic designers. He describes himself as a “hands-on” designer and has a unique, intuition-driven way of creating everything from magazines to TV commercials. Infamous in the early 1990s for making the text in Ray Gun magazine completely unreadable. For example, Carson once converted an entire article on Bryan Ferry into Zapf Dingbats